INTRODUCTION


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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTIONThe semiconductor manufacturing industry evolved significantly over the past half century. At its inception, the minimum feature size (i.e., node size) was at micrometer scale since the manufacturing of the first Intel 4004 chips until the announcement of the computer as the machine of the year (1983) by Times magazine. During that time, the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of the chips had 20 to 40 percent yield. As part of the yield control, dimension measurements of devices were performed by optical methods. While the popularity of personal computers was rising in 1980s, the node size was shrinking to less than 1 μm. However, the optical techniques for device measurements were reaching their resolution limits. Then, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) were…
Citation
Hwaiyu Geng, CMfgE, PE: Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition. INTRODUCTION, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018 2005), AccessEngineering Export