INTRODUCTION


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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTIONChemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is an enabling process technology for advanced sub-micrometer integration to manufacture semiconductor chips. It is the only process which can planarize on a global scale. Sub-micrometer features require the highest resolution imaging techniques. This implies short wavelength and high numerical aperture lenses resulting in small depth of focus [1]. CMP provides a flat surface at nanometer scale, which eliminates the issue of small depth of focus. Among other benefits, CMP maximizes lithographic performance, improves cleaning, reduces yield limiting defects from other processes, and permits the use of difficult-to-etch metals such as copper, which has replaced aluminum as the meta…
Citation
Hwaiyu Geng, CMfgE, PE: Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition. INTRODUCTION, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018 2005), AccessEngineering Export