APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION


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APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION
APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION
Copper Interconnect In the early years of semiconductor processing, transistor gate delays determined chip speed. However, as devices shrank, the RC delay in the metallization (interconnect) levels became an important factor determining the chip speed. Copper replaced aluminum in interconnect metallization for many chips because of its low resistivity and improved electromigration lifetime. Copper is second only to silver in elemental resistivity at 1.67 μΩ⋅cm. Copper films have a much higher melting point than aluminum and are predominantly (111) in crystal orientation which is the close packed plane. Both of these factors limit mobility of the copper ato…
Citation
Hwaiyu Geng, CMfgE, PE: Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018 2005), AccessEngineering Export