INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONElectrochemical deposition is a critical part of modern semiconductor manufacturing and is used in many manufacturing steps. Electrochemical deposition can be tuned to the process requirements for each application including electrolytic deposition of highly conductive copper for efficient damascene interconnects. Selective deposition is achieved electrolessly to deposit Co alloy capping layers for electromigration lifetime improvement. Electrochemical deposition also provides a low-cost and high-throughput process that is very attractive for packaging applications. Thick deposits of solder alloys such as lead/tin and tin/silver are electroplated through resist for chip packaging applications.