THE LIMITS OF OPTICAL MICROLITHOGRAPHY


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THE LIMITS OF OPTICAL MICROLITHOGRAPHY
THE LIMITS OF OPTICAL MICROLITHOGRAPHYTo date, optical lithography has been the technology of choice of IC manufacturing. What are the limits of this lithographic approach? The resolution limit as described in Eq. (8.1) outlines obvious challenges. Lower wavelengths require new light sources, lens materials, and resists. Higher numerical apertures at the existing wavelength of 193 nm require the development of higher refractive index immersion fluids and lens materials.To make the situation worse, any improvement in resolution is always accompanied by a decrease in depth of focus (DOF). According to the Rayleigh criterion, the DOF for small features should decrease as the featu…
Citation
Hwaiyu Geng, CMfgE, PE: Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition. THE LIMITS OF OPTICAL MICROLITHOGRAPHY, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018 2005), AccessEngineering Export